Bhagavad-Gita: Chapter 4-6


Chapter 4

Jnana Yoga: Knowledge of the Ultimate Truth

Chapter four Lord Krishna reveals how spiritual knowledge is received in disciplic successionHe also reveals the reason and nature of His descent into the material worlds. He explains thepath of action and the path of knowledge as well as wisdom regarding ultimate truth which results in the culmination of both paths. Thus chapter four is entitled Jnana Yoga or the Knowledge of the Ultimate Truth.

Verse 1

Lord Krishna said: I instructed the imperishable science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness unto the sun-god Surya, who taught it unto his sonVaisvastu Manu, who related it unto his son King Iksvaku.

Verse 2

In this way the saintly kings came to know this science received by disciplic succession; after a great duration of time this science of uniting the individual consciousness with the UltimateConsciousness became lost in this world, O conqueror of the enemy.

Verse 3

This very same ancient science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness and which is the supreme secret; therefore is being described by I unto you today because you are My devotee and friend.

Verse 4

Arjuna said: your birth is recent the sun-god's birth is previous; therefore you instructing in ancient times, how am I to understand this?

Verse 5

Lord Krishna said: Many births of Mine and also of yours have passed O Arjuna; I am knowledgeable of all of them; but you are not knowing.

Verse 6

Although being birthless, imperishable and immutable, the Lord of all living entities; being so situated I appear in this world in My original transcendental form by My internal potency.

Verse 7

Whenever and wherever there is a decline of righteousness and a predominance of unrighteousness, at that time I manifest personally, O descendant of Bharata.

Verse 8

For the protection of the devotees and the annihilation of the miscreants and to fully establish righteousness, I appear millenium after millenium.

Verse 9

O Arjuna, one who knows the transcendental reality of my birth and activities; by this after relinquishing one's body does not have to accept birth again but attains unto Me.

Verse 10

Freed from attachment, fear and anger; fully absorbed in Me, many persons being purified byknowledge and austerities, being fully situated in Me, attained loving devotion to Me.

Verse 11

All who in whatever way surrender unto Me, I reward them accordingly. All mankind followsMy path O Arjuna, in all respects.

Verse 12

In this world those who desire success for fruitive activities worship the various demigods; since in human society success from fruitive actions manifests very quickly.

Verse 13

The four divisions of human order were created by I according to differences in quality, activities and aptitude; although the creator of this, know I as the nondoer being immutable.

Verse 14

Activities never implicate I nor are any aspirations for the results of any action by Me. Onewho knows I in this way, he never becomes entangled by reactions to fruitive actions.

Verse 15

Knowing this even those who achieved liberation, the ancient authorities performed actions; therefore you certainly must adopt the actions performed in the past by ancient authorities.

Verse 16

Even the wise are bewildered in this matter of what is action and what is inaction; thus I shall explain unto that action which knowing you will be liberated from all worldly inauspiciousness.

Verse 17

The subject of actions prescribed in the Vedas should be understood, the subject of actions prohibited in the Vedas should be understood and the subject of renunciation of action as prescribed by the Vedas should be understood; because the intricasy of actions are very mysterious.

Verse 18

One who realizes the renunciation of action in activities and action in the renunciation of activities, he is spiritually intelligent among mankind, transcendentally situated a perfect performer of all actions.

Verse 19

One whose every undertaking is devoid of motivation for fruitive desires and sense gratification and who has incinerated all activities in the fire of pure knowledge; the spirituallly intelligent describe him as educated.

Verse 20

After giving up attachment for fruitive results, always satisfied, indifferent to external phenomena; he in spite of being engaged in activities does not do anything at all.

Verse 21

Bereft of desire, controlled in mind and body, relinquishing all conceptions of proprietorship,that person never incurs sinful reaction performing only actions to maintain body sustenance.

Verse 22

Satisfied with whatever comes by its own accord, tolerant of dualities, devoid of envy to others and while performing is equipoised in success or failure is never affected.

Verse 23

For one who is unattached to material nature, who is liberated, whose heart is situated in transcendence, who performs all actions as sacrifice unto the Ultimate Personality all reactionsare dissolved.

Verse 24

The sacrificial paraphenalia is the Ultimate Truth; the sacrificial fire is the Ultimate Truth, offerings of oblations and ghee by the brahmana is the Ultimate Truth; for him being fully absorbed in the Ultimate Truth by spiritual activity; certainly the Ultimate Truth is attainable.

Verse 25

Karma-yogis following the path of yoga by actions engage in worship offering sacrifices to thedemigods only; yogis worship perfectly by invoking offerings of sacrifice into the sacrificial fire of the Ultimate Truth, as sacrifice itself.

Verse 26

Celibates offer for sacrrificial oblations the senses such as hearing and seeing into the fire of renunciation; householders offer the objects of the senses such as pleasing sounds and pleasant sights into the fire of the senses.

Verse 27

Monists offer into the fire of self-purification of the mind by yoga, ignited by the urge for self-realization; all the senses and their actions as well as the life breath and its functions.

Verse 28

There are others donating their possessions in charity as sacrifice; performing austerities and penance as sacrifice, practicing the eightfold mystic yoga system as sacrifice and studying the Vedas and aquiring transcendental knowledge as sacrifice; all enlightened beings and the performers of strict vows.

Verse 29

Some others offer the outgoing breath to the incoming breath and the incoming breath to the outgoing breath; in this way checking the flow of both the incoming and outgoing breaths they arduously practice breath control. Others strictly reducing their food intake offer the senses into the life breath.

Verse 30

Indeed all these are knowledgeable of the principle of perfirming sacrifices, purified of sinfulreactions by performance of sacrifice. Those who have tasted nectar as the result of performing sacrifice reach the eternal, Ultimate Truth.

Verse 31

O Arjuna, one who performs no sacrifice is not fit for this world let alone the heavenly worlds.

Verse 32

Various kinds of sacrifices like this are prescribed by the auspices of the Vedas, understand that all manifest from actions; knowing this you will be liberated.

Verse 33

O Arjuna, offering sacrifice in knowledge is superior to offering sacrifice of material possessions; all fruitive activities come to an end entirely by knowledge.

Verse 34

This knowledge should be learned by accepting a spiritual master and by submissive inquiryand rendering service unto him. The self-realized and holy saint endowed with divine revelation will instruct you in wisdom.

Verse 35

O Arjuna knowing that knowledge you will never be subjected to illusion like this again; by which you will perceive all living entities in the soul and then in Me.

Verse 36

Even if you are the most sinful of all sinners; yet you will cross over all sins and miseries by the boat of transcendental knowledge.

Verse 37

O Arjuna, just as a blazing fire turns wood to ashes; similarly the fire of knowledge turns all reactions from fruitive activities to ashes.

Verse 38

In this world there is nothing that exists as purifying, in comparison with transcendental knowledge. One perfected by the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness automatically attains that knowledge in the self in course of time.

Verse 39

One with full faith, attentively focused who has conquered the senses achieves transcendental knowledge and having achieved transcendental knowledge quickly attains supreme peace.

Verse 40

The ignorant fool, one without faith in Vedic scriptures, and one afflicted by inner doubt anduncertainty is ruined and for one afflicted by doubt and uncertainty there is no happiness in this world nor the next.

Verse 41

O Arjuna, activities cannot bind one who has renounced the fruits of activities; overcoming all doubts by the transcendental knowledge of the the science of uniting one's individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness attains the state of self-realizaion.

Verse 42

O Arjuna by the sword of transcendental knowledge destroy these doubts of the self, born of ignorance, situated in the heart and taking shelter of the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness arise for battle.

Thus ends the Bhagavad-Gita Trust translation of the Bhagavad-Gita, chapter four entitled: Jnana Yoga: Knowledge of the Ultimate Truth.


Chapter 5

Karma-Vairagya Yoga: Action and Renunciation

In chapter five Lord Krishna delineates the understanding of action with detachment and renunciation in action by explaining that both inevitably lead to the same goal. He further shows how salvation is itself aachieved by perserverance of both these paths.Thus this chapter is entitled Karma-Vairagya Yoga or Action and Renunciation.

Verse 1

Arjuna said: O Krishna from renunciation of activities again you are also praising activities in the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness. Please tell I definitely which one of the two is more beneficial?

Verse 2

Lord Krishna said: Both renunciation of actions and prescribed actions in the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness lead to the path of liberation; but of the two prescribed actions in the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness is superior to renunciation of fruitive activity.

Verse 3

It should be known, O mighty armed one, that one who neither disdains nor desires the fruitsof actions is always a renunciate; certainly that person being free from all dualities is easily liberated from bondage.

Verse 4

The unintelligent say that renunciation of action and prescribed actions in the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness are different; but not the educated. A person perfectly engaged in even one, gains the result of both.

Verse 5

The state which is achieved by renunciation of actions; that is reached also by prescribed actions in the science of uniting the indivdual consciousness with the Ultimate ConsciousnessA person who can factually see as one both renunciation of action and prescribed action in thescience of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness actually understands.

Verse 6

But renunciation of action, O mighty armed one, afflicts one with distress without precribed action in the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness. One performing in prescribed actions in the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness is a wise man and without delay attains the Ultimate Truth.

Verse 7

Performing prescribed action in the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness; those of purified intelligence; those of controlled mind and those whohave conquered the senses are not affected by actions although engaged in actions; by self-realization of the soul within all souls of every living being.

Verses 8, 9

A performer of prescribed activities, a knower of truth having ascertained that it is the senses engaged in their various sense objects, never thinks he is doing anything; in spite of seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, eating, moving, sleeping, breathing, speaking, excreting and grasping; like the involuntary opening and closing of the eyelids.

Verse 10

One who acts by dedicating all activities to the Ultimate Truth, giving up attachment; is not affected by sin; just as a lotus leaf in water.

Verse 11

Followers of the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness, giving up attachment perform prescribed actions by the body, by the mind , by the intelligence and by the separated senses for purifying the self.

Verse 12

A performer of prescribed activities giving up the desire for results of activities obtains uninterupted peace; but a performer of fruitive activities becomes bound by obsession to the results of actions due to desire to enjoy the fruit of actions.

Verse 13

Mentally renouncing all fruitive activities, the self-controlled enbodied being within the physical body of nine openings; free from thinking he is the actual doer of anything and free from thinking he is the cause of anything resides happily.

Verse 14

The Ultimate Consciousness neither creates human misconceptions of bodily identification; nor the bodily identifications fruitive activities; nor the union of the fruitive actions and the resultant fruits; but it is due to the modes of material nature, engaging in acts.

Verse 15

The omnipresent Ultimate Consciousness never accepts the sins nor either the virtues of anyone; actual knowledge is enveloped by ignorance and because of that the living entities are deluded.

Verse 16

But of those whom this ignorance has been destroyed by the knowledge of the self; that knowledge is like the rising sun illuminated by the Ultimate Truth.

Verse 17

Those whose illusions are dispelled by knowledge, who are endowed with spiritual intelligence, who meditate on the inner self, whose faith is fixed and who have taken complete shelter of the Ultimate Truth attain liberation from the material existence.

Verse 18

Only those who see with equal vision the Ultimate Truth in a br«hmaŤa endowed with Vedicknowledge and humility, in a cow, in an elephant, in a dog and in the lower animal eating members of humanity are learned in genuine wisdom.

Verse 19

Those whose minds are situated in equanimity, they conquer this world in this very life; sincethey are endowed with the equal vision of the Ultimate Truth and free from all dualities, theyare situated in the Ultimate Truth.

Verse 20

Fully situated in the Ultimate Truth, poised in spiritual intelligence, devoid of delusion; one realized in the Ultimate Truth neither rejoices obtaining the pleasuarble nor laments when obtaining the unpleasurable.

Verse 21

One whose mind is not attached to external sense objects enjoys the happieness of the inner self; self-realized in the Ultimate Truth by the science of uniting the individual consciousnesswith the Ultimate Consciousness, one enjoys unlimited bliss.

Verse 22

O Arjuna, those pleasures arising from the senses contacting sense objects are indeed the source of misery only; subject to a beginning and an end; therefore the spiritually intelligent never take delight in them.

Verse 23

That person who is able to neutralize in this life, the physical, mental and emotional urges generated from desire and passion, before the death of the body; he is fully self-controlled and certainly happy.

Verse 24

One who experiences internal happiness with the mind immersed in the self, and who sees the self within as well; such a one perfecting the science of uniting the indidual consciousnesswith the Ultimate Consciousness spiritually realizing the Ultimate Truth attains the liberationof the Ultimate Truth.

Verse 25

Those seers of truth, whose doubts have been dispelled, devoid of all sins, engaged in self-realization and who are always concerned for the spiritual welfare of all living beings, achieve liberation in the Ultimate Truth.

Verse 26

For those renounced, who aware of the soul are self-realized and who are free from lust and anger; liberation in the Ultimate Truth occurs in this life and the next.

Verses 27, 28

That person expelling from the mind unnecessary external sense objects, fixing the eyes between the eyebrows, practicing the suspension of breath control in the inhalation and exhalation of air flowing threw the nostrils; such a person is in control of his senses, mind and spiriual intelligence; being so dedicated to liberation, devoid of desire, fear and anger, this wise one is certainly always factually liberated.

Verse 29

Thus knowing I as the most worshipable beneficiary to offering sacrifices and auterities the Ultimate Controller of all planes of existence and the demigods thereof and the most mercifulbenefactor of all living entities achieces perfect peace.

Thus ends the Bhagavad-Gita Trust translation of Bhagavad-Gita, chapter five, entitled: KarmaVairagya Yoga: Action and Renunciation.


Chapter 6

Abhyasa Yoga: The Science of Self Realization

In chapter six Lord Krishna reveals astanga yoga and the exact process of practicing such yoga.he explains in detail the difficulties of the mind and the procedures by which one may gain scientific mastery of the mind by the yoga process revealing our inherent spiritual nature. Thus chapter six is entitled: Abhyasa Yoga or The Science of Self-Realization.

Verse 1

Lord Krishna said: One who enacts obligatory prescribed actions without expectation of the result of actions he is truly a renunciate and a follower of the science of uniting the individualconsciousness with the Ultimate consciousness; not one without prescribed duties, nor one who merely renounces bodily activities.

Verse 2

O Arjuna, you should know that which is acclaimed as renunciation is the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness; since without renouncing thedesire for fruitive results one cannot become perfected in the science of uniting the individualconsciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness.

Verse 3

For the sage desirious of progress in the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness action is declared as the means; and for one who has attained perfection in uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness, cessationof action is declared as the means. Verse 4
When one is not addicted to desire for sense gratification nor in fruitive activities, renouncingall material desires; then only it is declared that one is elevated to the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness.

Verse 5

The conditioned being must be delivered from material nature by the realized mind. The conditioned being must not be come degraded ; since this very mind is the friend of the conditioned being as well as the enemy of the conditioned being.

Verse 6

For the being who has conquered the mind; that beings mind is the best of friends; but for one whose mind is uncontrolled, that very mind acts as the worst of enemies.

Verse 7

The being who has conquered the mind, transcending the dualities of cold,heat, happiness, distress, honor and dishonor is firmly established with the Ultimate Consciousness within.

Verse 8

One perfected in the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness by acquired Vedic knowledge and direct realization within the self, fixed in this state with senses fully controlled observing with equal vision a clod of dirt, a stone or gold is declared to be realized.

Verse 9

But more superior is one who with spiritual intelligence acts equally towards natural well wishers, affectionate well-wishers, enemies, those indifferent to disputes, mediators of disputes, the envious, friends, saintly person as well as the sinful.

Verse 10

One perfecting the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness, consistently residing alone in a secluded place engaged in controlling the mind; desireless, free from proprietorship; should meditate on the inner self.

Verses 11,12

In a sacred and purified place after establishing a seat neither too high nor too low of kusa grass, deerskin or natural cloth; thereupon sitting firmly on that seat controlling the mind andactivities of the senses making the mind one pointed; one in realization should meditate by the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness for purifying the mind.

Verses 13, 14

Holding the body, head and neck straight, umoving and stable, gazing upon the tip of the nose and not glancing in any direction, fixed in the vow of celibacy, with an unagitated mind,fearless, completely subduing the mind; the renunciate should sit concentrating the mind upon I the Supreme Lord as the Ultimate Goal.

Verse 15

In this way consisitently engaging the self in meditation, one perfecting the science of unitingthe individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness, with the mind withdrawn within attains perfect peace by the cessation of material existence into the spiritual effulgenceof my impersonal aspect.

Verse 16

O Arjuna, the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness never occurs for one who eats too much or one who eats too little, nor also for one who sleeps too much or sleeps too little.

Verse 17

Regulated in eating and recreation, regulated in discharging prescribed duties for self maintenance, regulated in sleeping and wakefulness; one by the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness is able to mitigate all misery.

Verse 18

When the specifically disciplined mind resides solely in the self; then devoid of attachment to all types of material desire for sense gratification is declared properly situated spiritually.

Verse 19

As a flame in a windless place does not waver, the analogy is cited of one perfected in the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness; just as the self-realized being, whose controlled mind unwaveringly engages in the science of unting theindividual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness.

Verses 20,21,22,23

Thus the mind disciplined by executing the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness becomes spiritually stable and by this, perceiving the inner self by the purified becomes satisfied only in the inner self; thus this being experiences superior, transcendental bliss, which is perceptible by spiritual intelligence and thus situatedone never deviates from the truth. By attainment of this state one does not consider any other attainment greater than that and being situated within which one never is distraught by even intense suffering for as soon as suffering commences it is dispelled. Know that all perfection is the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness.

Verse 24

Ones eternal duty is to perfect the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness by perserverance, dedidcation and conviction; abandoning all desiresor sense gratification arising from the stimulus of mental imagery by withdrawing all of the senses completely on all sides solely by the mind.

Verse 25

By spiritual intelligence and concentrated meditation establish the mind fully within the self;gradually step by step become focused within, not thinking of anything else.

Verse 26

To whatever and wherever the restless and unsteady mind wanders this mind should be restrained then and there and brought under the control of the self alone.

Verse 27

Certainly one perfected in the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness, free from passion, of tranquil mind, devoid of all sinful reactions; being liberated by realization of the Ultimate Truth gains supreme bliss.

Verse 28

Consistently experiencing in this way the realization of the self, one perfected in the science of unting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness is freed from all material contamination easily attaining transcendental happiness being in realization of the Ultimate Truth.

Verse 29

One perfectly realized and perfected in the sceience of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness, identifying with this consciousness everywhere and in everything perceives the realized self situated in all living entities and all living entities in therealized self.

Verse 30

For one who sees I everywhere and sees everything in Me, I am never forgotten by them and they are never forgotten by Me.

Verse 31

One who taking shelter of Me, rendering service with a spirit of devotion always as the non-differential one residing in the heart of all living entities; such a living entity perfected in the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness resides in I although being in various circumstances.

Verse 32

One who perceives in comparison with the self, all living entities equally, in happiness and distress; such a one perfected in the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness is considered the highest.

Verse 33

Arjuna said: O Krishna in this science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness by equality of vision as described by you; I do not perceive a permanent situation due to the minds flickering nature.

Verse 34

O Krishna, the flickering mind is certainly turbulent, strong and obstinate; I think that subduing the mind is more difficult than the wind.

Verse 35

Lord Krishna said: O mighty armed one, undoubtedly the mind is fickle and difficult to master; but it can be controlled by diligent practice, O Arjuna and detachment from sense enjoyment.

Verse 36

But the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness practiced by one with uncontrolled mind is difficult to obtain; thus it is My opinion that in this endeavor controlling the mind is the practical and appropriate means of achievement.

Verse 37

Arjuna said: O Krishna what is the fate of the unsucessful transcendentalist engaged with faith in the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness;but whose mind deviates failing to achieve perfection in the science of uniting the individualconsciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness.

Verse 38

O mighty armed one, bewildered on the path to the Ultimate Truth, without any refuge, deviated from both yoga and meditation; is it not that one is ruined like a fragmented cloud?

Verse 39

O Krishna this doubt of mine, I am requesting You to completely dispel; other than You, the remover of this doubt is not to be found.

Verse 40

Lord Krishna said: O Arjuna their never exists destruction for one in this life nor in the next life; since dear friend anyone who is engaged in virtuous acts never comes to evil.

Verse 41

After achieving the planets of those who performed pious activities; one who has fallen from the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness, after residing there for many, many years takes birth in a family of the pious and prosperous.

Verse 42

Otherwise one surely takes birth in a family endowed with wisdom in the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness; certainly such a birth as this isvery rare in this world.

Verse 43

O Arjuna, in this way the revival of spiritual intelligence is regained that was practiced in a previous life; thererfter he endeavors once again for perfection.

Verse 44

Because of the strength of the previous practice one is irresistibly attracted; certainly even the inquisitive in the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness surpasses the ritualistic principles for fruitive actions in the Vedas.

Verse 45

One perfected in the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness diligently endeavoring by ridgid practice, purified of worldly attachment; achieves the perfection of many, many lifetimes and attains the supreme goal.

Verse 46

One perfecting the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness is considered superior to the performers of asceticism and is superior to the followers of impersonal knowledge. One perfected in the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousnessis also superior to the fruitive worker; therefore O Arjuna, just become one perfected in the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness.

Verse 47

Of all those perfecting the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness one who in full faith is always thinking of I within, deeply dedicated to me,rendering devotional service to I is the most superior of all.

Thus ends the Bhagavad-Gita Trust translation of Bhagavad-Gita, chapter six, entitled: Abhyasa Yoga: The Science of Self Realization.