Bhagavad-Gita: Chapter 13-15
Ksetra-Ksetrajnana Vibhaga Yoga: The Individual and the
In chapter 13 Lord Krishna reveals the distinct difference of the
immortal soul and the seperate designation of the physical body. He
explains the transitory nature of mortality as being perishable
whereas the nature of the soul is imperishable and eternal. Lord
Krishna also gives precise knowledge about the individual soul and
the ultimate soul. Thus chapter thirteen is entitled
Ksetra-Ksetrajnana Vibhaga Yoga or The Individual and the Ultimate
Verses 1, 2
Arjuna said: O Krishna, I wish to understand this material
energy, the individual consciousness, the field of activity, the
knower of the field of activity, knowledge and the goalof knowledge.
Lord Krishna said: O Arjuna, the material body is known as the field
of activityand those who know this describe those who know this as
knowers of the field of activity.
O Arjuna, certainly knowing I as well within all bodies as the
knower of the field of activity such knowledge of the field of
activity and the knower of the field is actual knowledge in My
Hear in brief from I about that field of activities, also what
kind of nature it possesses, whattransformations it produces, from
whence it was born and from what and what is its influence.
In a unique manner it has been sung in many ways by various
sages, by the Vedic hymns, by various aphorisms of Vedanta with its
sound logic and reasoning and by conclusive evidence.
Verses 6, 7
The major elements of earth, water, air, fire and ether; the
false ego, spiritual intelligence, theunmanifest element in material
nature,the ten senses along with the mind and the five objectsof the
senses as sound, sight, taste, touch and smell; desire, disdain,
happiness, distress, the perceptual faculty of the mind,
determination; all this is declared to be the field of activities
modified by the six transformations of the physical body beginning
with birth and ending with death.
Verses 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
Humilty, pridelessness, nonviolence, tolerance, honesty,
rendering service to a bonafide spiritual master, cleanliness,
steadfastness; self-control, renouncing the desires of the senses,
free from false egoism and aware of the distressful inauspiciousness
of birth, old age, diseaseand death. Being without attachment to
son, wife and home, equipoised in all situations, consistent,devoid
of elation or disapointment regarding favorable or unfavorable
situations, preference for solitary places, aversion of mundane
society and exclusively performing devotional service unto I by the
unalloyed science of uniting the individual consciousnesswith the
Ultimate Consciousness. Always aspiring for self-realization,
constantly meditating on the Ultimate Truth as the goal of true
wisdom; all this is thus proclaimed as knowledge andwhatever is
contrary to this is nescience.
Now I shall explain that which is to be known, realizing which
the nectar of immortality is attained; that reality is eternal
having I as the Supreme, beyond cause, beyond effect and designated
as Brahman the Ultimate Truth.
With hands and feet ecerywhere, with eyes, heads and faces
everywhere, hearing all; that reality exists pervading everything in
That Ultimate Truth is cognizant of all the senses of the
material nature; yet is devoid of all material senses, completely
unattached yet the sustainer of everything, transcendental to
material nature, yet the maintainer of material nature.
Within and without all living entities, that Ultimate truth is
stationary as well as mobile; on account of its being subatomic,
that Ultimate Truth is incomprehensible and is far away yet also
Without division that Ultimate Truth appears to be divided among
all the various living entities and is to be known as the preserver
of all living entities and the destroyer as well as the creator.
That Ultimate Truth is declared as the illuminator of all that
illuminates, beyond the darknessof ignorance; residing within the
heart of everyone it is comprehensible by the wisdom gained from
realization by the knowledge of direct experience.
My devotee understanding this field of activity, knowledge and
what is to be known thus described in summary becomes qualified for
My divine nature.
Know that verily both the material energy and the individual
consciousness certainly are beginningless and know that
transformations of the body and the three modes of material nature
also certainly are produced by the material energy.
In the matter of creation the material energy is responsible for
cause and effect; in the matter of experiencing happinesss and
distress the individual consciousness is declared responsible.
The individual consciousness situated in the material energy
certainly experiences the three modes of material nature produced by
the material energy; the beguiling infatuation of these three modes
of material nature is the cause of a beings innumerable births,
superior and inferior in the wombs of varieagated lifeforms.
Within the body, supreme to the individual consciousness; an
indwelling observer; a sanctioner, a preserver, an enjoyer and
indeed ultimate controller as well is described as the Ultimate
Anyone who understands in this way the individual consciousness
and the Ultimate Consciousness also the material energy along with
the three modes of material nature; one although existing in any
condition never takes birth again.
Some by the science of the individual consciousness attaining
communion with the UltimateConsciousness perceive within the self,
the Ultimate Consciousness by meditation on the self;others by the
discrimination between matter and spirit and others by the science
of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate
Consciousness by actions.
Yet others without knowing these methods engage in worship by
hearing from others; verily they becoming established from listening
also transcend the transmigration of death.
O Arjuna, whatever living entity, animate or inanimate comes
into being; know they are produced by the interaction between the
field of activities and the knower of the field of activities.
Anyone who perceives the Ultimate Consciousness residing equally
in all living entities everywhere as the imperishable within the
perishable; such a one actually perceives.
By seeing the Ultimate Consciousness equally everywhere,
impartially situated, one does notdegrade the embodied self, by the
self; therefore reaching the supreme goal.
Anyone who perceives in this way that activities in all respects
are being performed only by the material energy; such a one
perceives perfectly the embodied self as the non-doer.
When one actually perceives the expansion and diversity of all
life forms as situated in the unity of material nature; thereafter
at that time the Ultimate Truth is attained.
This Ultimate Consciousness is beginningless, immutable, devoid
of any material quality O Arjuna; although situated within the body
it never does anything nor is it influenced.
As all pervading space is never implicated due to being subtle;
similarly the Ultimate Consciousness being all pervading, situated
in the body is never implicated.
O Arjuna just as one sun illuminates an entire universe;
similarly the Ultimate Consciousness and the individual
consciousness illuminates the entire field of activity of the
Those who by the realization of knowledge can fathom the
distinction between the body, the individual consciousness and the
Ultimate Consciousness and the liberation of the living entities
from the material energy they achieve the Supreme.
Thus ends the Bhagavad-Gita Trust translation of Bhagavad-Gita,
chapter thirteen entitled: Ksetra-Ksetrajnana Vibhaga Yoga: The
Individual and the Ultimate Consciousness.
Gunatraya-Vibhaga Yoga: The Three Qualities of Material
In chapter fourteen Lord Krishna reveals matters pertaining to
goodness, passion and ignorance which is influencing everything in
the material creation. He explains seperately theessential
characteristics of each, their causes, their level of potency and
how they affect all living entities. Thus chapter fourteen is
entitled: Gunatraya-Vibhaga Yoga or The Three Qualities of Material
Lord Krishna: said, the supreme wisdom I shall reveal again, the
best of all knowledge; whichknowing all the great sagesattained
ultimate perfection in the material energy.
Taking refuge in this wisdom, attaining My divine nature one is
not reborn during the universal creation nor destroyed during the
O Arjuna, the entire expansive material energy is the womb into
which I infuse the embryo ofindividual consciousness; subsequently
manifested by Me, every species of life is generated.
O Arjuna, whatever form is generated from all the wombs of every
species, the entire expansive material energy is their womb and I am
the seed bestowing father.
O mighty armed one, the qualities of goodness, passion and
ignorance thus produced by the material energy enslaves the
immutable, consciousness of the self within the body.
O sinless one, among these the mode of goodness being pure,
illuminating and serene; conditions one due to the attachment of
happieness and the attachment of knowledge.
O Arjuna, know that the mode of passion is the source of lust
and attachment and the producer of desire for sense gratification
and sentimental infatuation; that enslaves the embodied
consciousness by attachment to fruitive activities.
You should know, O Arjuna, that the mode of ignorance as the
cause of delusion enslaving allembodied beings born of nescience; by
negligence, listlessness and somnolence.
O Arjuna, the mode of goodness ensnares one in happiness, the
mode of passion in fruitive activity and the mode of ignorance in
negligence and the like, obscuring knowledge.
O Arjuna, the mode of goodness overpowering the modes of passion
and ignorance, the modeof passion overpowering the modes of goodness
and ignorance; similarly as well the mode of ignorance arises over
the modes of goodness and passion.
When through the perceptual senses of the body illuminating
knowledge manifests; know that certainly the mode of goodness
O Arjuna, when greed, restless exertion with great endeavor for
fruitive activities, agitation ofthe senses, incessant desire for
sensual indulgence; when all these arise the mode of passion
O Arjuna, nescience, inertness, neglectfulness and also
illusion; when these arise the mode ofignorance predominates.
When the embodied being transitions death predominated by the
mode of goodness; at that time the pure planets with the highest
knowledge are attained.
Succumbing to death in the mode of passion one takes birth among
those beings attached to fruitive activities; similarly dying in the
mode of ignorance, one takes birth from the womb of an animal.
The result of virtuous activities in the mode of goodness is
declared purity, the result in the mode of passion is misery and the
result in the mode of ignorance is nescience.
From goodness developes wisdom, from passion greed and certainly
from ignorance delusionand illusion arise along with nescience.
Those situated in the mode of goodness go upwards to the
heavenly planets, those situated in the mode of passion dwell in the
middle planets of human species and those in the mode of ignorance
situated in abominable delusion go downwards to the hellish planets.
When the embodied being comprehends there is no other inactor
than three modes of material nature and knows what is supreme to the
three modes of material nature; one achieves My divine nature.
Transcending the three modes of material nature, which are the
cause of the material body; being freed from birth, death, old age
and misery; the embodied being enjoys ambrosial nectar.
Arjuna said: O Lord, by which symptoms is known transcendence of
these three modes of material nature? What is the behavior and how
is it possible to transcend these three modes of material nature?
Verses 22 ,23, 24, 25
Lord Krishna said: One who feels no resentment at the appearance
of illumination, activity aswell as illusion, O Arjuna, nor desires
their cessation; one who neutrally situated is not disturbed by the
three modes of material nature, one who remains firmly poised
without wavering knowing that the modes of material nature are the
performer.One who is equipoised in happiness and distress, firmly
situated internally, regarding equally a lump of earth, a stone or
gold, equally disposed towards the desirable and the undesirable, in
honor and dishonor, equal to both friends and enemies, abandoning
all endeavors for activity and renunciation, one is declared
transcendental to the three modes of material nature.
One who by the science of uniting the individual consciousness
with the Ultimate Consciousness in pure loving devotion, rendering
unadulterated service exclusively unto Me; such a one completely
surmounts these three modes of material nature and qualifies for
elevation to the realized platform of the Ultimate Truth.
Verily, I am the original foundation of the Ultimate Truth and
of eternal righteousness; of imperishable immortality and absolute
Thus ends the Bhagavad-Gita Trust translation of Bhagavad-Gita,
chapter fourteen entitled: Gunatraya-Vibhaga Yoga: The Three
Qualities of Material Nature.
Purusottama Yoga: Realization of the Ultimate Truth
In chapter fifteen Lord Krishna reveals the virtues, glories and
transcendental characteristics of the Supreme Lord and His qualities
of omniscience, omnipresence and omnipotence. AlsoHe explains the
purpose and value of learning about God and the means to of
realizing this. Thus chapter fifteen is entitled: Purusottama Yoga
or Realization of the Ultimate Truth.
Lord Krishna said: Metaphorically it is stated, the banyan tree
with roots above and branchesbelow is imperishable; the Vedic
scriptures are the leaves of that tree, one who understands this is
knowledgeable of the Vedic scriptures.
The branches of that tree extending downward and upwards, with
its sprouts symbolizing sense objects, develope due to the three
modes of material nature; with roots spreading downwards also
produces actions and reactions in the worlds of humans.
Verses 3, 4
Within this world the inverted form of this tree cannot be
perceived, nor its beginning, nor its foundation; severing this
strongly rooted in attachment banyan tree with the sharp weapon of
detachment; thereafter go to the place where there is no return
again by approaching the exclusive shelter, surrendering at the feet
of the Supreme Lord; verily to the original, UltimatePersonality
from whom the perpetual process emanates.
Devoid of false ego and illusion, free from degraded
association, perceptive of the eternal andthe transitory,
dissassociated from lust, completely liberated from the dualities
identified as happiness and distress; the wise reach the
imperishable shelter of the Supreme Lord.
The sun illumines not that place, nor the moon, nor fire; that
is My all-illuminating, supreme transcendental abode, having reached
from which there is no return.
Verily the embodied living entity is My infinitesimal potency
and eternal; in the world of embodied living entities the influence
of the material energy is carried by the mind and the six perceptual
Whatever body the eternal infinitesimal potency enters and from
whatever body he departs; carrying this subtle body from the old
body as the air, fragrance; transfers it to a new body.
Governing hearing, sight, touch, taste and smell also the mind;
this infinitesimal potency verily enjoys the objects of the senses.
The unevolved mesmerised by the the three modes of material
nature cannot perceive this infinitesimal potency departing the
body, residing in the body or enjoying in the body; but those
enlightened by the eye of wisdom can perceive.
Those perfected in the science of uniting the individual
consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness by great endeavor can
perceive this infinitesimal potency situated within the body; but
the undeveloped and those of impure minds can never perceive this
infinitesimal potency even with great endeavor.
Understand that the effulgence which emanates from the sun
illuminating the entire universeand which is in the moon and in fire
is from Me.
Permeating throughout the planetary systems I maintain all
moving and stationary beings byMy potency and having become the
essence of the moon, I nourish all plant life.
Enacting as the fire of digestion, I entering into the body of
every living entity digest the four types of foodstuffs by the
auspices of the incoming and outgoing life breath.
I am the indwelling monitor in the heart of all beings, from I
arises consciousness, wisdom,and forgetfulness; verily I am to be
known by the Vedas, I am the compiler of the Vedas and the knower of
the meaning of the Vedas.
In the fourteen universal systems there are only two conscious
principles; the perishable and the imperishable; all moving and
stationary living entities are declared perishable and those
perfected internally as imperishable.
The Ultimate Personality is another, described as the Ultimate
Consciousness, imperishable, the controller of everything who
permeating the three divisions of the universe sustaining allbeings.
Because I am beyond the perishable and as the Ultimate,
transcendental to the imperihable aswell; I am celebrated in the
worlds and in the Vedic scriptures as the Ultimate Personality.
O Arjuna, anyone who without delusion knows I in this way as
the Ultimate Personality, knows everything; such a one renders
devotional service unto I completely in all respects.
O sinless one; thus this most confidential meaning of the
scriptures has been disclosed by Me; realizing this O Arjuna; one
becomes spiritually enlightened and accomplished in all acts.
Thus ends the Bhagavad-Gita Trust translation of Bhagavad-Gita,
chapter fifteen entitled: Purusottama Yoga: Realization of the