Bhagavad-Gita: Chapter 13-15


Chapter 13

Ksetra-Ksetrajnana Vibhaga Yoga: The Individual and the Ultimate Consciousness

In chapter 13 Lord Krishna reveals the distinct difference of the immortal soul and the seperate designation of the physical body. He explains the transitory nature of mortality as being perishable whereas the nature of the soul is imperishable and eternal. Lord Krishna also gives precise knowledge about the individual soul and the ultimate soul. Thus chapter thirteen is entitled Ksetra-Ksetrajnana Vibhaga Yoga or The Individual and the Ultimate Consciousness.

Verses 1, 2

Arjuna said: O Krishna, I wish to understand this material energy, the individual consciousness, the field of activity, the knower of the field of activity, knowledge and the goalof knowledge. Lord Krishna said: O Arjuna, the material body is known as the field of activityand those who know this describe those who know this as knowers of the field of activity.

Verse 3

O Arjuna, certainly knowing I as well within all bodies as the knower of the field of activity such knowledge of the field of activity and the knower of the field is actual knowledge in My advice.

Verse 4

Hear in brief from I about that field of activities, also what kind of nature it possesses, whattransformations it produces, from whence it was born and from what and what is its influence.

Verse 5

In a unique manner it has been sung in many ways by various sages, by the Vedic hymns, by various aphorisms of Vedanta with its sound logic and reasoning and by conclusive evidence.

Verses 6, 7

The major elements of earth, water, air, fire and ether; the false ego, spiritual intelligence, theunmanifest element in material nature,the ten senses along with the mind and the five objectsof the senses as sound, sight, taste, touch and smell; desire, disdain, happiness, distress, the perceptual faculty of the mind, determination; all this is declared to be the field of activities modified by the six transformations of the physical body beginning with birth and ending with death.

Verses 8, 9, 10, 11, 12

Humilty, pridelessness, nonviolence, tolerance, honesty, rendering service to a bonafide spiritual master, cleanliness, steadfastness; self-control, renouncing the desires of the senses, free from false egoism and aware of the distressful inauspiciousness of birth, old age, diseaseand death. Being without attachment to son, wife and home, equipoised in all situations, consistent,devoid of elation or disapointment regarding favorable or unfavorable situations, preference for solitary places, aversion of mundane society and exclusively performing devotional service unto I by the unalloyed science of uniting the individual consciousnesswith the Ultimate Consciousness. Always aspiring for self-realization, constantly meditating on the Ultimate Truth as the goal of true wisdom; all this is thus proclaimed as knowledge andwhatever is contrary to this is nescience.

Verse 13

Now I shall explain that which is to be known, realizing which the nectar of immortality is attained; that reality is eternal having I as the Supreme, beyond cause, beyond effect and designated as Brahman the Ultimate Truth.

Verse 14

With hands and feet ecerywhere, with eyes, heads and faces everywhere, hearing all; that reality exists pervading everything in this world.

Verse 15

That Ultimate Truth is cognizant of all the senses of the material nature; yet is devoid of all material senses, completely unattached yet the sustainer of everything, transcendental to material nature, yet the maintainer of material nature.

Verse 16

Within and without all living entities, that Ultimate truth is stationary as well as mobile; on account of its being subatomic, that Ultimate Truth is incomprehensible and is far away yet also very near.

Verse 17

Without division that Ultimate Truth appears to be divided among all the various living entities and is to be known as the preserver of all living entities and the destroyer as well as the creator.

Verse 18

That Ultimate Truth is declared as the illuminator of all that illuminates, beyond the darknessof ignorance; residing within the heart of everyone it is comprehensible by the wisdom gained from realization by the knowledge of direct experience.

Verse 19

My devotee understanding this field of activity, knowledge and what is to be known thus described in summary becomes qualified for My divine nature.

Verse 20

Know that verily both the material energy and the individual consciousness certainly are beginningless and know that transformations of the body and the three modes of material nature also certainly are produced by the material energy.

Verse 21

In the matter of creation the material energy is responsible for cause and effect; in the matter of experiencing happinesss and distress the individual consciousness is declared responsible.

Verse 22

The individual consciousness situated in the material energy certainly experiences the three modes of material nature produced by the material energy; the beguiling infatuation of these three modes of material nature is the cause of a beings innumerable births, superior and inferior in the wombs of varieagated lifeforms.

Verse 23

Within the body, supreme to the individual consciousness; an indwelling observer; a sanctioner, a preserver, an enjoyer and indeed ultimate controller as well is described as the Ultimate Consciousness.

Verse 24

Anyone who understands in this way the individual consciousness and the Ultimate Consciousness also the material energy along with the three modes of material nature; one although existing in any condition never takes birth again.

Verses 25

Some by the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the UltimateConsciousness perceive within the self, the Ultimate Consciousness by meditation on the self;others by the discrimination between matter and spirit and others by the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness by actions.

Verse 26

Yet others without knowing these methods engage in worship by hearing from others; verily they becoming established from listening also transcend the transmigration of death.

Verse 27

O Arjuna, whatever living entity, animate or inanimate comes into being; know they are produced by the interaction between the field of activities and the knower of the field of activities.

Verse 28

Anyone who perceives the Ultimate Consciousness residing equally in all living entities everywhere as the imperishable within the perishable; such a one actually perceives.

Verse 29

By seeing the Ultimate Consciousness equally everywhere, impartially situated, one does notdegrade the embodied self, by the self; therefore reaching the supreme goal.

Verse 30

Anyone who perceives in this way that activities in all respects are being performed only by the material energy; such a one perceives perfectly the embodied self as the non-doer.

Verse 31

When one actually perceives the expansion and diversity of all life forms as situated in the unity of material nature; thereafter at that time the Ultimate Truth is attained.

Verse 32

This Ultimate Consciousness is beginningless, immutable, devoid of any material quality O Arjuna; although situated within the body it never does anything nor is it influenced.

Verse 33

As all pervading space is never implicated due to being subtle; similarly the Ultimate Consciousness being all pervading, situated in the body is never implicated.

Verse 34

O Arjuna just as one sun illuminates an entire universe; similarly the Ultimate Consciousness and the individual consciousness illuminates the entire field of activity of the physical body.

Verse 35

Those who by the realization of knowledge can fathom the distinction between the body, the individual consciousness and the Ultimate Consciousness and the liberation of the living entities from the material energy they achieve the Supreme.

Thus ends the Bhagavad-Gita Trust translation of Bhagavad-Gita, chapter thirteen entitled: Ksetra-Ksetrajnana Vibhaga Yoga: The Individual and the Ultimate Consciousness.


Chapter 14

Gunatraya-Vibhaga Yoga: The Three Qualities of Material Energy

In chapter fourteen Lord Krishna reveals matters pertaining to goodness, passion and ignorance which is influencing everything in the material creation. He explains seperately theessential characteristics of each, their causes, their level of potency and how they affect all living entities. Thus chapter fourteen is entitled: Gunatraya-Vibhaga Yoga or The Three Qualities of Material Energy.

Verse 1

Lord Krishna: said, the supreme wisdom I shall reveal again, the best of all knowledge; whichknowing all the great sagesattained ultimate perfection in the material energy.

Verse 2

Taking refuge in this wisdom, attaining My divine nature one is not reborn during the universal creation nor destroyed during the universal destruction.

Verse 3

O Arjuna, the entire expansive material energy is the womb into which I infuse the embryo ofindividual consciousness; subsequently manifested by Me, every species of life is generated.

Verse 4

O Arjuna, whatever form is generated from all the wombs of every species, the entire expansive material energy is their womb and I am the seed bestowing father.

Verse 5

O mighty armed one, the qualities of goodness, passion and ignorance thus produced by the material energy enslaves the immutable, consciousness of the self within the body.

Verse 6

O sinless one, among these the mode of goodness being pure, illuminating and serene; conditions one due to the attachment of happieness and the attachment of knowledge.

Verse 7

O Arjuna, know that the mode of passion is the source of lust and attachment and the producer of desire for sense gratification and sentimental infatuation; that enslaves the embodied consciousness by attachment to fruitive activities.

Verse 8

You should know, O Arjuna, that the mode of ignorance as the cause of delusion enslaving allembodied beings born of nescience; by negligence, listlessness and somnolence.

Verse 9

O Arjuna, the mode of goodness ensnares one in happiness, the mode of passion in fruitive activity and the mode of ignorance in negligence and the like, obscuring knowledge.

Verse 10

O Arjuna, the mode of goodness overpowering the modes of passion and ignorance, the modeof passion overpowering the modes of goodness and ignorance; similarly as well the mode of ignorance arises over the modes of goodness and passion.

Verse 11

When through the perceptual senses of the body illuminating knowledge manifests; know that certainly the mode of goodness predominates.

Verse 12

O Arjuna, when greed, restless exertion with great endeavor for fruitive activities, agitation ofthe senses, incessant desire for sensual indulgence; when all these arise the mode of passion predominates.

Verse 13

O Arjuna, nescience, inertness, neglectfulness and also illusion; when these arise the mode ofignorance predominates.

Verse 14

When the embodied being transitions death predominated by the mode of goodness; at that time the pure planets with the highest knowledge are attained.

Verse 15

Succumbing to death in the mode of passion one takes birth among those beings attached to fruitive activities; similarly dying in the mode of ignorance, one takes birth from the womb of an animal. Verse 16
The result of virtuous activities in the mode of goodness is declared purity, the result in the mode of passion is misery and the result in the mode of ignorance is nescience.

Verse 17

From goodness developes wisdom, from passion greed and certainly from ignorance delusionand illusion arise along with nescience. Verse 18
Those situated in the mode of goodness go upwards to the heavenly planets, those situated in the mode of passion dwell in the middle planets of human species and those in the mode of ignorance situated in abominable delusion go downwards to the hellish planets.

Verse 19

When the embodied being comprehends there is no other inactor than three modes of material nature and knows what is supreme to the three modes of material nature; one achieves My divine nature. Verse 20
Transcending the three modes of material nature, which are the cause of the material body; being freed from birth, death, old age and misery; the embodied being enjoys ambrosial nectar.

Verse 21

Arjuna said: O Lord, by which symptoms is known transcendence of these three modes of material nature? What is the behavior and how is it possible to transcend these three modes of material nature?

Verses 22 ,23, 24, 25

Lord Krishna said: One who feels no resentment at the appearance of illumination, activity aswell as illusion, O Arjuna, nor desires their cessation; one who neutrally situated is not disturbed by the three modes of material nature, one who remains firmly poised without wavering knowing that the modes of material nature are the performer.One who is equipoised in happiness and distress, firmly situated internally, regarding equally a lump of earth, a stone or gold, equally disposed towards the desirable and the undesirable, in honor and dishonor, equal to both friends and enemies, abandoning all endeavors for activity and renunciation, one is declared transcendental to the three modes of material nature.

Verse 26

One who by the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness in pure loving devotion, rendering unadulterated service exclusively unto Me; such a one completely surmounts these three modes of material nature and qualifies for elevation to the realized platform of the Ultimate Truth.

Verse 27

Verily, I am the original foundation of the Ultimate Truth and of eternal righteousness; of imperishable immortality and absolute transcendental bliss.

Thus ends the Bhagavad-Gita Trust translation of Bhagavad-Gita, chapter fourteen entitled: Gunatraya-Vibhaga Yoga: The Three Qualities of Material Nature.


Chapter 15

Purusottama Yoga: Realization of the Ultimate Truth

In chapter fifteen Lord Krishna reveals the virtues, glories and transcendental characteristics of the Supreme Lord and His qualities of omniscience, omnipresence and omnipotence. AlsoHe explains the purpose and value of learning about God and the means to of realizing this. Thus chapter fifteen is entitled: Purusottama Yoga or Realization of the Ultimate Truth.

Verse 1

Lord Krishna said: Metaphorically it is stated, the banyan tree with roots above and branchesbelow is imperishable; the Vedic scriptures are the leaves of that tree, one who understands this is knowledgeable of the Vedic scriptures.

Verse 2

The branches of that tree extending downward and upwards, with its sprouts symbolizing sense objects, develope due to the three modes of material nature; with roots spreading downwards also produces actions and reactions in the worlds of humans.

Verses 3, 4

Within this world the inverted form of this tree cannot be perceived, nor its beginning, nor its foundation; severing this strongly rooted in attachment banyan tree with the sharp weapon of detachment; thereafter go to the place where there is no return again by approaching the exclusive shelter, surrendering at the feet of the Supreme Lord; verily to the original, UltimatePersonality from whom the perpetual process emanates.

Verse 5

Devoid of false ego and illusion, free from degraded association, perceptive of the eternal andthe transitory, dissassociated from lust, completely liberated from the dualities identified as happiness and distress; the wise reach the imperishable shelter of the Supreme Lord.

Verse 6

The sun illumines not that place, nor the moon, nor fire; that is My all-illuminating, supreme transcendental abode, having reached from which there is no return.

Verse 7

Verily the embodied living entity is My infinitesimal potency and eternal; in the world of embodied living entities the influence of the material energy is carried by the mind and the six perceptual senses.

Verse 8

Whatever body the eternal infinitesimal potency enters and from whatever body he departs; carrying this subtle body from the old body as the air, fragrance; transfers it to a new body.

Verse 9

Governing hearing, sight, touch, taste and smell also the mind; this infinitesimal potency verily enjoys the objects of the senses. Verse 10
The unevolved mesmerised by the the three modes of material nature cannot perceive this infinitesimal potency departing the body, residing in the body or enjoying in the body; but those enlightened by the eye of wisdom can perceive.

Verse 11

Those perfected in the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the Ultimate Consciousness by great endeavor can perceive this infinitesimal potency situated within the body; but the undeveloped and those of impure minds can never perceive this infinitesimal potency even with great endeavor.

Verse 12

Understand that the effulgence which emanates from the sun illuminating the entire universeand which is in the moon and in fire is from Me.

Verse 13

Permeating throughout the planetary systems I maintain all moving and stationary beings byMy potency and having become the essence of the moon, I nourish all plant life.

Verse 14

Enacting as the fire of digestion, I entering into the body of every living entity digest the four types of foodstuffs by the auspices of the incoming and outgoing life breath.

Verse 15

I am the indwelling monitor in the heart of all beings, from I arises consciousness, wisdom,and forgetfulness; verily I am to be known by the Vedas, I am the compiler of the Vedas and the knower of the meaning of the Vedas.

Verse 16

In the fourteen universal systems there are only two conscious principles; the perishable and the imperishable; all moving and stationary living entities are declared perishable and those perfected internally as imperishable.

Verse 17

The Ultimate Personality is another, described as the Ultimate Consciousness, imperishable, the controller of everything who permeating the three divisions of the universe sustaining allbeings.

Verse 18

Because I am beyond the perishable and as the Ultimate, transcendental to the imperihable aswell; I am celebrated in the worlds and in the Vedic scriptures as the Ultimate Personality.

Verse 19

O Arjuna, anyone who without delusion knows I in this way as the Ultimate Personality, knows everything; such a one renders devotional service unto I completely in all respects.

Verse 20

O sinless one; thus this most confidential meaning of the scriptures has been disclosed by Me; realizing this O Arjuna; one becomes spiritually enlightened and accomplished in all acts.

Thus ends the Bhagavad-Gita Trust translation of Bhagavad-Gita, chapter fifteen entitled: Purusottama Yoga: Realization of the Ultimate Truth.